Tag Archives: dsm 5

Where did the bipolar go?

June 11th, 2012

When she was four years old, my daughter received a diagnosis of mood disorder, and when she was six, a new psychiatrist diagnosed her with bipolar disorder. I will never know whether she received this diagnosis because I took her to a particular clinic at a leading medical center, or whether her constellation of symptoms truly fit that diagnosis.  The psychiatrist who gave her the bipolar diagnosis has been criticized in the media for over diagnosing children with bipolar disorder. A recent story in the Boston Globe describes the ongoing dispute within the medical field over whether chronic irritability and aggression symptoms of ‘mania’ or are better described in the upcoming DSM V as ‘disruptive mood disregulation.’ 

Children who are diagnosed with bipolar disorder often receive other diagnoses, including ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment disorder, executive function disorder, sensory integration disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. By the time my child was six years old, she had been hospitalized at least twice and diagnosed with all of the disorders listed above, and probably more.

For many years, I was convinced that her prognosis was very poor. In bimonthly meetings at the psychiatrist’s office, I learned that the early onset of my child’s extreme aggression, combined with the frequency of outbursts, pointed to a stronger likelihood that her illness would develop into adult bipolar disorder, as compared with children who had later onset or more mild symptoms. The few people whom I knew with adult bipolar disorder were unable to work and seemed quite disabled. When I argued that my child seemed neither ‘depressed’ nor ‘manic’, I was told that I was incorrect and that irritability was the hallmark of mania (and depression).

Since she was three, I have investigated and tried many interventions to address my child’s tantrums, aggression, social deficits, and hyperactivity, including sticker charts, Collaborative Problem Solving, multiple psychiatrists, therapists, and hospitalizations, at least 15 or 20 medications, two therapeutic schools, social skills groups, occupational and speech therapy, and more. Despite all of this, she attacked me many times, physically and emotionally, and was aggressive in public. Needless to say, she didn’t have any friends.

Nine months ago, the psychiatrist at a long -term psychiatric treatment program told me that I have to accept that my child ‘will never become a doctor or a lawyer’ because her illness is too severe.  This is a child who has expressed the desire to become a medical researcher.  I was outraged at the psychiatrist’s arrogance and I hope that she has a short career.

Fortunately for my daughter, she has a mother who never gives up.  During the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991), while living in Jerusalem, I learned to persevere in the face of uncertainty about the future. Despite the constant risk of biochemical warfare from a Iraqi missiles people went to work and carried on life as usual, carrying gas masks everywhere.  I learned to push aside the fear and the doubt and keep on trying.

After receiving the unwelcome prediction, 9 months ago, I decided that radical action was needed.  I discontinued the services that were not working or were making my child worse: the therapeutic day school and overnight camps, speech and occupational therapies and the antipsychotic medications.  I listened to my child when she said that she wasn’t being challenged at school, she didn’t need speech and OT, and she wanted ‘normal’ classmates. For an interim period, after withdrawing her from the therapeutic school, we tested the waters of reentry into the world of the non-mentally ill.  I home-schooled her and she gradually joined groups of home schoolers, then girls her age within our religious community. With each new group experience that she tried, I kept my cellphone close, in case her inappropriate behavior resurfaced. To my surprise, and joy, she made friends and discovered that her social skills not as inadequate as we had thought.

My daughter’s bipolar disorder seems to be gone. She is thriving at a private school, not special education. She is achieving high grades and is making friends.  Sometimes the experts are wrong.

Our guest blogger, Rachael Wurtman, is in private practice as an Mental Health and Autism Spectrum Advocate, who advises parents about and advocates for  interventions and services, at schools and in the community. She finds pediatric mental illness and autism spectrum disorder fascinating and is constantly learning as much as she can. She is trained in law and in child development and has chosen to give up the practice of law.

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Bipolar no more?

March 29th, 2010

The new DSM 5, the bible for psychiatric disorders, intends to do away with a bipolar diagnosis for many children and teens.  A new diagnostic category, temper dysregulation disorder (TDD) is being proposed and would include symptoms of bipolar disorder.  The new diagnosis of TDD (does this really denote a serious medical condition?) will surprise and dismay many parents.  Families usually struggle for years with their child’s unpredictable behavior, intense moods and volcanic temper tantrums while strangers, friends and family assume that what is wrong is inadequate parenting.   A bipolar diagnosis has helped many parents get treatment, school services and a recognition that what they are dealing with at home is serious stuff indeed.

The DSM is many things to many people.  Mental health clinicians rely on it to help form an accurate diagnosis.  Insurers use it to authorize payment for medically necessary treatment.  Schools often cite diagnoses in the student’s education plan.  Even juvenile courts use it to better understand the behaviors that might bring a youth into court. 

The DSM 5 Child and Adolescent Disorders Workgroup has listed several reasons for the recommended change.  The rise in prescribing psychotropic medications for children is one.  The group also cites a study that “found a 40-fold increase between 1994 and 2003 in the number of outpatient pediatric psychiatry visits associated with the diagnosis of BD [bipolar disorder].”   Yet, a 2007 study found that youth released from the hospital with a primary diagnosis of bipolar amounted to less than one in a thousand.

But in 1994, practically no children were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, so any increase from “almost nothing” would be startling.  In the early 90s, I was running support groups where parents would share stories with each other about their child’s moods (from rage to extreme silliness to wanting to die), the nightmares that came almost every night, the rigid food preferences and risky behaviors.  Most parents worked, had little support and felt overwhelmed by the impact on their family.  Parents were told their children had ADHD, anti-social personalities, were oppositional or had conduct disorder.  Somehow these diagnoses didn’t capture the gravity or complexity of the situation.

The DSM is not a coding system set up for the convenience of the insurance industry or to create a shorthand for schools. Yet, a child must often be labeled “something” in order to get services.  We all give lip service to measuring the “functioning” of a child but that still doesn’t open doors or get services paid for.  The reality is that parents often have to fight for services.  We may decry the need for labels and powerful diagnoses, but at this point in time it’s what we have.  Those diagnoses have to increase access for children as well as describe their symptoms.

Most of the children and youth who now have a bipolar disorder diagnosis require medication, therapy, special education strategies and a loving, dedicated parent who is willing to do battle to obtain the needed treatments and services in order to improve things.  It’s a diagnosis that does not imply that “bad” parenting is the cause, which allows parents to be partners in creating and carrying out a treatment plan, just as they would if this were any other medical illness.   It also does not imply the child is to blame, which is often equally important.

Any new diagnosis proposed by the DSM 5 needs to send a clear signal to insurers, schools and the general public that bipolar in children is very real and very serious.  Parents already know this.  There is still time for comments at  www.dsm5.org until April 20, 2010. 

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Yes, there’s been a gap between the last post and this one.  I got a house ready to be sold, sold it and am getting ready to move.  It certainly devoured a lot of my time.  But I have been thinking about children’s mental health a great deal and the posts will keep on coming!

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